October 19, 2021
How to Pay Out-of-State Employees While Remaining Compliant? Hiring employees from another state, accommodating a staff member who wants to relocate, or relocating an employee across state borders to broaden your consumer base are all examples of making the best decisions for your organization. To stay in compliance with the applicable tax and employment authorities, you’ll need to undertake some legwork for each out-of-state employee on your payroll. The information in the next section can assist you in getting started.
Once you’ve determined that your remote worker qualifies as a W-2 employee, it’s time to figure out where they work and live. Although a remote employee may live in one state and work in another, you will normally be required to withhold and report taxes in the state where they work. If your company is situated in Florida but has a remote employee who works in California but resides in Michigan, you would withhold the person’s income tax and pay California state unemployment tax.
If your employee’s self-reported work location is reasonable, you can base your tax withholding on it. There are a few possible exceptions, such as reciprocal agreements between states and de minimis or exemption regulations, to consider.
Your in-state employee may not be subject to the income taxes of the other state if they work in it on a very limited basis. De minimis or exemption regulations establish a threshold (such as a limit number of days worked in the state or a dollar amount of earned income) that must be met before an employer is required to begin withholding state taxes.
The majority of employees working remotely in a state surpass de minimis limits, and legislation might differ significantly from one jurisdiction to the next. It is consequently critical to contact the state tax authorities in your employee’s place of employment for state-specific guidance.
Reciprocal agreements are agreements between two neighboring states that allow inhabitants of one state to request a tax exemption from the other (reciprocal) state. Reciprocal agreements make it impossible for employees to file numerous state tax returns. You will only withhold and submit taxes in your employee’s residence state if their work state and resident state has a reciprocal arrangement.
Reciprocity, on the other hand, is not a given concept. Employees must request that taxes be withheld in their home state rather than their place of employment. Stop withholding taxes for their work state and start withholding taxes for their home state whenever your employee gives you their state tax exemption form. Keep these state tax exemption certificates on hand in case your company is audited by the state where your employee works.
Managing payroll for workers who work from home may be the most difficult component of forming a remote workforce. Fortunately, expert services are available to assist.
The mere presence of an employee in a state on a regular basis is frequently enough to trigger “physical presence” nexus requirements, however, criteria differ from state to state. Nexus occurs when your company has strong enough ties to another state to be responsible for its income and sales taxes.
Visit the Department of Revenue website in the state where your remote employee works for some answers—but determining whether or not your company has nexus is likely a complex question that may require you to register as a foreign business and appoint a registered agent in the state where your remote employee works. Meeting with a tax advisor or CPA can help you better understand and manage your registration and tax requirements.
Payroll service providers can assist your business in complying with payroll tax requirements and filing withholding tax returns. Payroll automation also ensures that you pay the correct amount of taxes and don’t miss critical deadlines. Most payroll services will require you to register with the Department of Labor and get an employment tax ID in order for them to withhold and remit taxes on your behalf.
Also Read: Types of Small Business Financing Strategies
Although the focus of this post is on remote workers who qualify as W-2 employees rather than independent contractors, it’s important to note the distinction right away. Workers are often treated as independent contractors by the IRS if they have authority over how, when, and where the job is completed, and the employer simply guides the work’s desired conclusion. Aside from that, they’re a W-2 employee.
It’s important to note that this isn’t a black-and-white definition, and remote employment might lead to ambiguity. However, the answer will decide whether or not your company deducts state income taxes and pays Social Security, Medicare, and unemployment insurance. In most cases, businesses are not obligated to withhold or pay taxes on the wages of independent contractors, but they are compelled to do so for W-2 workers.
To help you determine the suitable worker classification, the IRS’s Independent Contractor or Employee page breaks down three key categories: behavioral control, financial control, and type of relationship. State rules may also have an impact on how you classify and pay your employees. For example, California’s Assembly Bill 5 (AB5) makes it more difficult for employers to designate employees as independent contractors.
It’s also crucial to become familiar with the local labor rules in the jurisdiction where your remote employee works, such as minimum wage requirements and regular breaks. The Employer Guide from the Department of Labor is a good resource on this subject.
You will almost certainly be required to register for unemployment insurance through the state unemployment insurance program in the state where your remote employee works. Failure to do so may subject your company to penalties and taxes for failing to follow the state’s unemployment insurance requirements.
Workers’ Compensation insurance, which protects your employee in the case of a job-related injury or illness, is required in almost every state. You can enroll through a commercial provider or through the workers’ compensation insurance program in your state. Contact the workers’ compensation official in the state where your employee will be working for more information.